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Analyses were adjusted for factors known to influence blood pressure (confounders), including:

What kind of research was this?The researchers say that there is growing evidence that outdoor temperature has an influence on blood pressure, with blood pressure being higher in winter and lower in summer.

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The researchers used the General Register Office for Scotland to obtain information on deaths among the participants and causes of death. Mortality information was available up to 2011, allowing up to 35 years of follow up.

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´╗┐Cold weather may increase blood pressure

Looking at longer term changes over five or more years, people whose blood pressure changed when there was a decline in temperature experienced a 2.68mmHg increase in their systolic blood pressure, and a 1.84mmHg increase in their diastolic blood pressure (the lower figure in a blood pressure measurement), compared with people whose blood pressure seemed insensitive to temperature change.

Information on the monthly average weather for the west of Scotland was obtained from the UK Met Office. The Met Office has used a consistent method to analyse climate patterns since 1961, and can provide weather for square kilometre grid points across the UK. Information on four aspects of weather was used in the study:

The current study aimed to examine people's individual changes in blood pressure in response to a range of weather patterns. The researchers also wanted to see whether this was predictive of longer term blood pressure control and mortality.

We know that our bodies respond to temperature changes, so it is plausible that temperature could influence blood pressure. But factors other than the weather may have had a role to play in the blood pressure results seen.

Compared with consistent weather, a change from the lowest to highest quartile was associated with 2 6.6% increases in systolic blood pressure for all four weather characteristics assessed.

For each person, the researchers looked at pairs of consecutive clinic visits that were at least one month apart but within the same 12 month period. They were interested in pairs of visits where weather either remained constant (both visits in the same weather quartile) or where weather was very different (one visit in the lowest quartile and one visit in the highest quartile). They categorised the weather for these clinic visits as:

a 1.4% increase in systolic blood pressure with an increase in air frost a 0.8% increase in blood pressure for an increase in rainfall there was no consistent pattern in blood pressure with a change in temperature from low to high When the researchers compared the blood pressure changes seen with consistent weather patterns, a change in the weather from the highest to lowest quartile was associated with about a 6% increase in systolic blood pressure when there was a decline in temperature and sunshine, and about a 4% increase in systolic blood pressure when there was a decline in air frost.

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in weather.

A similar 1.31mmHg increase in systolic blood pressure and a 1.22mmHg increase in diastolic blood pressure was seen for people who were sensitive to a decline in sunshine.

The researchers found that when there was consistent weather between the two clinic visits (Qn to Qn), there was:

The quality of the Daily Mail's reporting of this study is mixed. On the negative side, it presents an over simplistic conclusion that cannot be drawn from the complex analysis used in this study.

Nike Air Vapormax Plus Sunset

Nike Air Vapormax Plus Sunset

It is also important to point Nike Air Vapormax Plus Sunset out that the minor increases in blood pressure detected by the study could in many cases be compensated for by taking more exercise or improving your diet.

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The research focused on patients at a blood pressure clinic in Glasgow and looked at two consecutive visits the patients made within a 12 month period. The researchers combined these findings with Met Office weather data from the time of these visits to assess whether changes inpatients' blood pressure were related to changes in the weather.

This is believed to be because the constriction of blood vessels at colder temperatures increases blood pressure. However, it is unclear whether the temperature related response differs among individuals.

control the weather, we can still rely on more traditional ways of controlling our blood pressure, such Adidas Joggers Grey

What were the basic results?The average age of individuals at their first clinic visit was 51 years, and most were overweight (mean BMI was 28). The average length of follow up for each person was 6.5 years.

It was published in thepeer reviewed Journal of the American Heart Association.

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In the longer term, individuals whose blood pressure seemed sensitive to decreases in temperature and sunshine had slight increases in blood pressure. They also seemed to have overall shorter survival than people insensitive to weather changes.

about a 2% increase in systolic blood pressure with a decrease in temperature and sunshine no significant change in systolic blood pressure with a decrease in air frost and rainfall For change from low to high weather extremes, there was:

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'Bad weather could raise your blood pressure and even kill you,' is the unnecessarily alarmist headline in the Daily Mail. It reports on a large, complex study that lookedfor any association between changes in weather and blood pressure rates.

Nike Air Vapormax Plus Sunset

Nike Air Vapormax Plus Sunset

Where did the story come from?The study was carried out by researchers from the University of Glasgow.

On the plus side, its story does contain useful advice from a spokesperson from Blood Pressure UK: "Until we can Adidas Tracksuit Black Women

What did the research involve?The study included 16,010 people from the Glasgow Blood Pressure Clinic (47% male) who had been referred by their GP in order to control their high blood pressure.

air frost air temperature rainfall sunshine Each visit every person made to the Blood Pressure Clinic was mapped to the mean monthly weather of the west of Scotland. Mean monthly measurements for each of the four aspects of weather were ranked from the lowest to the highest measurement, and then split into four equal groups called quartiles. The lowest quartile (Q1) contained the lowest 25% of measurements and the highest quartile (Q4) contained the highest 25% of measurements.

age smoking alcohol high body mass index (BMI) kidney disease

Q1 to Q4, where weather for the first clinic visit was in the lowest quartile and the subsequent visit was in the highest quartile Q4 to Q1, where weather for the first clinic visit was in the highest quartile and the subsequent visit was in the lowest quartile Qn to Qn, where both the first and the second clinic visits were in the same weather quartile there was no change in weather patterns For each individual, the researchers examined changes in their blood pressure and heart rate between the two visits, and looked at how the size and direction of this change (up or down) related to the change Adidas Purple Hoodie Womens

as eating more fruit and vegetables, less salt and alcohol, and taking more exercise."

an average 2.1% decrease in systolic blood pressure (the upper figure of a blood pressure measurement)with consistent air frost a 2.2% decrease with consistent temperature a 1.7% decrease with consistent rainfall a 2.2% decrease with consistent sunshine For change from high to low weather extremes, there was:

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